RVNs are ideally placed to examine a patient’s mouth, whether this be in a consult, when intubating for anaesthesia, or whilst monitoring an anaesthetic. But what should we be looking for and how do we know what is normal and what is abnormal? This webinar presents many different examples, what they mean and what treatment may be required, including gingivostomatitis, fractured or worn teeth, malocclusions and many more!  

The webinar is especially captivating due to the number of videos and photos shown, with Stacey explaining what’s happening alongside.  

The Learning Objectives are:  

  1. Learn the classes of malocclusions 
  2. Identify enamel hypoplasia  
  3. Understand when treatment may be required  
  4. Learn the differences between Periodontitis and gingivostomatitis  
  5. Establish the difference between worn and fractured teeth 

Stacey starts the webinar with an image and then goes on to describe epulis. Epulis cannot be a diagnosis but a clinical description, so she recommends performing tests. It then continues with a picture of hyperplastic gingivitis, its description, treatment and pathology.  

The webinar then moves on to Canine Lances. This is more likely to be seen in dogs than cats, is usually hereditary and x-rays are required. Its treatment is explained by Stacey in the webinar.   

Class 2 malocclusion is then shown as one of the most common cases of malocclusion that we can see in practice. Class 3 and 4 malocclusions are also described and explained.  

Enamel hypoplasia is a defect that occurs during tooth development and is often confused with staining or stubborn plaque. It can spread to many teeth and can become painful.   

Decayed teeth are usually found in dogs with very high sugar diets, the tooth is usually movable and very painful. Extraction and x-rays are required.   

Severe periodontal disease can affect the heart and kidneys due to bacteria, is usually seen in geriatric patients and should be treated; x-rays are shown of cases where even such a severe case can result in a broken jaw.  

When we are presented with a pink/purple coloured tooth we should be aware that it is possibly a blunt trauma, and its colour is due to blood from the pulp reaching the dentine. In these cases, the tooth can be extracted, or the root canal can be treated.   

Cleft palate is a congenital condition where there is a direct communication between the oral and nasal cavities. They must be intubated in order to feed and surgery must be performed.   

Tooth fractures are more common in dogs than in cats, but they are still relatively common in cats. Stacey explains when a fracture may or may not be painful, the types of treatment that can be carried out and the reasons why they occur. Worn teeth are often confused with tooth fractures, so Stacey explains the differences and why they occur too.  

A less common presentation seen in dentistry is chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis. Its presentation is often confused with other things such as toxicity, burns or even ulcers caused by kidney problems. It is very painful and usually ulcerates the mucosa and tongue. Stacey recommends that if you are presented with such a case, it is best to contact a veterinary dentist so that they can properly guide you in the treatment of the disease or you can make a referral so that they can treat your patient appropriately.  

Stacey says that periodically cats are referred for gingivostomatitis, where actually the cat is suffering from a case of feline gingivitis/periodontitis. The difference is that the caudal mouth and fauces are not affected. The webinar advises on how to handle these cases.  

Another condition that can be seen in cats is pyogenic granuloma, which contrary to its name is not caused by pus. It is a proliferative mass caused by contact between the mucosa and the tooth. It is common in brachycephalic breeds of cats and usually in young cats.